Kent DriscollAPTN NewsNunavut’s Baffin Correctional Centre (BCC) is infamous.The Auditor General of Canada said the facility puts the safety of staff and inmates at risk.Most people want to get out of BCC, not in.But one man who advocates for prisoners got kicked out of jail – and he’s taking Nunavut justice to court to get back [email protected]@kentdriscoll
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Citation: Cane toad pioneers speed up invasions (2013, July 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-07-cane-toad-invasions.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Associate Professor Rick Shine: “The research has implications for how we assess the impact of invasive species.” © 2013 Phys.org More information: Rapid shifts in dispersal behavior on an expanding range edge, PNAS, Published online before print July 29, 2013, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1303157110AbstractDispersal biology at an invasion front differs from that of populations within the range core, because novel evolutionary and ecological processes come into play in the nonequilibrium conditions at expanding range edges. In a world where species’ range limits are changing rapidly, we need to understand how individuals disperse at an invasion front. We analyzed an extensive dataset from radio-tracking invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) over the first 8 y since they arrived at a site in tropical Australia. Movement patterns of toads in the invasion vanguard differed from those of individuals in the same area postcolonization. Our model discriminated encamped versus dispersive phases within each toad’s movements and demonstrated that pioneer toads spent longer periods in dispersive mode and displayed longer, more directed movements while they were in dispersive mode. These analyses predict that overall displacement per year is more than twice as far for toads at the invasion front compared with those tracked a few years later at the same site. Studies on established populations (or even those a few years postestablishment) thus may massively underestimate dispersal rates at the leading edge of an expanding population. This, in turn, will cause us to underpredict the rates at which invasive organisms move into new territory and at which native taxa can expand into newly available habitat under climate change. Cane toads ‘wiping out’ mini crocodiles Down Under (Phys.org) —Climate change is one of a number of stressors that cause species to disperse to new locations. Scientists must be able to predict dispersal rates accurately, as the movement of a new species into an area can have a significant, and sometimes detrimental, effect on that area’s ecology. When studying dispersal rates of cane toads in Australia, Tom Lindstrom of the University of Sydney and his colleagues found that toads that are first to move into a new area travel at faster rates than toads that arrive later. Their research, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that failure to account for this has caused scientists to severely underestimate dispersal rates. Australia’s Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations brought cane toads from America to Australia in 1935, in order to control beetles that were infesting sugar cane. Since then, cane toad populations have spread widely, and the toads, which secrete a toxin, disrupt the native ecology. In order to predict how cane toad populations will shift in response to environmental stressors, scientists have been studying movement patterns of established toad populations. Lindstrom and his team contend that by ignoring the differences between “pioneer” toads, who are the first to enter a site, and toads that have been at a site for a few years, previous predictions of dispersal rates have been inaccurate.The team studied eight years worth of data from radio-tracked toads that had colonized a site in tropical Australia. Using a Bayesian model, the researchers analyzed the data and determined that pioneer toads were more likely move in constant directions and take long steps than toads that arrived a few years later. These toads tended to take short steps and frequently make sharp-angled turns. Because of these behavioral differences, toads at the forefront of an invasion covered almost twice as much ground as later-arriving toads.The team found physical differences between the pioneer toads and the other toads that could account for the pioneers’ faster movements. For example, pioneer toads had longer legs. The researchers speculate that because pioneers can only mate with each other, inherited physical differences between pioneers and other toads increase over time. This causes pioneers to continually become more “athletic” in comparison to the other toads. In fact, many of the cane toad pioneers had spinal arthritis, indicating that they had reached physiological or biomechanical tolerance limits. Lindstrom and his team suggest that environmental conditions may enhance the effects of physical “improvements” in pioneer populations; for example, pioneers may find travel during wet seasons easier than their slower conspecifics.The researchers claim that many other species have exhibited rapid dispersal rates during the earliest phases of invasions. By restricting data to that obtained from organisms long-established in an area and ignoring variations in environmental conditions, scientists may routinely be underestimating the speeds at which species can invade new territories.
Tags: Scotland << Previous PostNext Post >> Share Scotland offers history, fine whiskey and ancestral haunts By: Jean Sorensen Thursday, October 11, 2018 VANCOUVER — Canada is a top tier travel market for Scotland and the two countries have a long-standing affinity. For Canadian travellers looking for a taste of home, there’s even a Tim Horton’s now in Glasgow.“Canada is our fourth largest market,” says Keith Campbell, the Canadian marketing representative for Scotland, based in Toronto. The market has been growing. “It is my job to see it continues to grow.”Campbell spoke with travel agents attending a supplier session in Vancouver earlier this week, featuring Scotland product updates from a delegation of Scottish suppliers.Scottish tourism figures show double-digit increases in tourism in 2017 over 2016 with Great Britain the largest market, followed by Europe and then North America, with the U.S. the larger sector.Scotland tourism reps credit the popularity of movies made in Scotland such as the Outlander series, James Bond movies featuring Scotland, Harry Potter flicks and new Mary Queen of Scots movie to be released January 2019.The Scottish delegates, making up the North American Business Development Mission, offered up details about Scotland’s unique accommodations and tours rich history, fine whiskey, ancestral haunts and cruising on Loch Ness, famously home to the Loch Ness Monster.The growing popularity of Scotland as a destination has prompted suppliers to invest.Here’s a look at what’s new:Caledonian Sleeper’s new carsOne of the largest investments involves Serco, which took over operating the Caledonian Sleeper trains from the Scottish government in 2015. Caledonian Sleeper comprises a fleet of overnight sleeper trains with 43 destination in Scotland as well as London.The company announced earlier this year it was receiving 75 new rail cars to replace the aging fleet. Five cars are in service and being tested with the remainder expected to be in place by spring 2019. The new sleeper bedrooms offer private bathrooms, a new feature.“The new fleet represents a £140 million investment (or $240 million in Canadian funds),” said Rhiannon Merritt, BDM for the rail company. The service out of London is popular as travellers find it expensive to stay overnight in the city, she said.More news: Marriott Int’l announces 5 new all-inclusive resorts in D.R. & MexicoMerritt can be reached at [email protected] or visit www.sleeper.scot.Loch Ness CruisesCelebrating 50 years in business, Cruise Loch Ness recently rolled out a new 210-passenger catamaran vessel costing £1.5 million ($2.5 million) to cruise the waters known as the haunt of the elusive Loch Ness Monster. “It doubles our capacity,” said Ronald Mackenzie, company director and second generation owner of a family.Cruise Loch Ness owner Ronald Mackenzie recently launched a new boat to mark the 50th anniversary of the cruise company (all photo credits Jean Sorensen)The previous vessel, still operating, carried 108 passengers while the company also has a fleet of 12-man rigid inflatable boards, built for those who enjoy zipping along the 37-kilometre lake. The cruises take in the rugged shoreline, wildlife, and for those who like old ruins, Urquhart Castle.The cruise company can arrange drop-off and pick-up at the shoreline, said Mackenzie. The company also does weddings, with approximately 12 a year on board the larger vessels. Approximately 60% of the business is through partners who are packaged local tours, and the rest from the public and travel agents.The company negotiates rates with agents. Contact Mackenzie at [email protected] or visit www.cruiselochness.com for more information.Dunstane House and Hampton HouseThese two restored houses are a family business and the owners recently updated the boutique luxury property Dunstane House, an 1860s neo-classic five-star property. Hampton House, also updated, is a four star property. The market, said owner Shirley Mowat, is the higher-end client wanting to stay in a property that feels like a catered home. The top international clients come from the U.S., she said, but “Canada is coming up. Word is getting out to come to Scotland.”Shirley Mowat, co-owner of Dustan House and Hampton House, offers luxury establishments that even James Bond would enjoy. The houses are known for their atmosphere, whiskey tastings and freshly prepared food from the Orkney Islands and local suppliersOne of the features of the properties is that there are few rules. Clients can schedule their own meal times and there is a staff member on duty at night to get that nightcap from the vintage cabinet that stocks 90 malt whiskeys. Mowat works with agents, with rates varying according to the client’s needs, but she says commission averages 10%. The properties also work with local tour operators and can book clients.More news: Flights cancelled as British Airways hit by computer problemContact Mowat at [email protected] or visit the website at www.thedunstane.com.Mary’s MeandersThis company does ancestral tours, fielding queries regarding ancestors and planning itineraries for people. “Sometimes it is just a bit of information (about a family) and sometimes people have a whole book,” director Emma Chalmers, said, adding that the tour company can help research ancestral haunts. It recently brought a visiting family searching its roots to its ancestral castle for a stay, arranged a dinner there, and served food that would have been representative of their ancestral heritage.Emma Chalmers of Mary’s Meanders specializes in ancestral tours, historical tours and visiting the filming locations of movies. The company handles small group tours, private and day toursMary’s Meanders is based near Linlithgow, Mary Queen of Scot’s birthplace and it provides local walking tours of the area. The company also specializes in film tours, visiting filming locations. It has access to self-catering cottages where groups can stay for a week, available themselves of organized events and tours. Contact Chalmers at [email protected] or visit the website at www.marysmeanders.co.uk for further info.Other suppliers on the tour included The Clydeside Distillery which offers daily tours of its single malt scotch whiskey distillery (contact: Andrew Morrison at [email protected] or www.theclydeside.com). Three Contini Restaurants, run by third generation Italian Scots, are located in Edinburgh and offer scenic views and local fare (contact Stephanie Zahra, sales, at [email protected] or visit website at www.contini.com). And fashionistas will want to visit Johnstons of Elgin, established in 1797, which turns raw cashmere into clothing with historic designs and patterns. Contact: Stewart Marshall at [email protected] or visit www.johnstonsofelgin.com for further information.VisitScotland’s travel trade website is traveltrade.vistscotland.org.