Why is BREXIT Important to USA

first_img « The Demise of the British Conservative Party? Categories: Politics QUESTION: Why is Brexit important to USA?HNANSWER: Besides the fact that the political turmoil in Europe has been sending capital fleeing to the USA making the dollar king, the political trends in Britain has always been linked to the United States. Margaret Thatcher was first elected in 1979 and that trend appears in the USA during 1980 with the election of Ronald Reagan. Tony Blair was elected the Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in 1997 and served until 2007 while Clinton was elected in 1992 and served from 1993 until 2001. The trends between the USA and Britain have been deeply linked from inception. Therefore, it is wise to pay attention to politics in Britain more so than most other nations.center_img EU Elections with Exit Polls »last_img read more

Mortality rate increases during tropical nights in Barcelona

first_imgJul 31 2018A statistical analysis of the effects of very hot nights on the death rate in Barcelona’s environment reveals that, during these nocturnal periods, more deaths occur due to natural, respiratory and cardiovascular causes. Although this year would seem to break the trend, the number of ‘tropical’ nights has increased in the Catalan capital over the last few decades.The effects of hot days on mortality in cities are usually studied taking into account the maximum and, especially, the minimum temperatures during these days. Now, the researcher Dominic Royé of the University of Santiago de Compostela has applied new bio-meteorological indexes to analyze this relationship more effectively and identify the nights in which the population is more vulnerable to thermal stress, which harms well-being and health.The study, published in the International Journal of Biometeorology, focuses on Barcelona’s environment. The author has used the temperature data recorded between 2003 and 2013 to define two indexes: one that assesses the intensity (sum of the temperatures reached) and the other, the duration (number of hours that exceed 23º C) of the heat during the nights.”In general, in a classical sense, tropical nights are those whose minimum temperature does not fall below 20º C, but in this work a relative threshold of 23º C is established, which allows one to take into account the acclimatization of the population to the temperatures of Barcelona,” Royé has told Sinc. If the 25º C mark is exceeded, nights are referred to as scorching, as with some of those registered at the end of July this year and in August of 2017.Moreover, the researcher has compiled the official information provided by the Department of Health of the Generalitat of Catalonia regarding mortality rates in Barcelona, Badalona and L’Hospitalet de Llobregat during that period. The deaths were classified into three categories: natural causes (all pathologies except for accidents), cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.A statistical model was then applied to determine whether there is a link between these data and the two indexes. “The associations for the variables of exposure to heat and mortality show a ratio with high and medium values that persist significantly until one or two days after the episode, ” he points out.Specifically, it was observed that mortality due to natural causes increases by 1.1% for every 10% of the night when the 23º C mark is exceeded, and up to 9.2% on the rare occasions when this temperature doesn’t go down during the whole night.Related StoriesUltra-fast new technology to detect bacteriaSepsis Alliance launches Maternal Sepsis Day to raise awareness and save livesAvoid ultra-processed food!The effects of high nocturnal temperatures on mortality from cardiovascular causes are similar, but in the case of deaths due to respiratory problems, they are even higher.Although data for the period 2003-2013 have been used for the analysis, the researcher considers that the results of subsequent years should not be very different: “In principle, it can be assumed that the risks remain the same; although in the future, with climate change and increased temperatures, these and thermal stress will also increase, if the trend of increasing tropical nights in Barcelona continues”.The author concedes that the results of the Catalan capital cannot be extrapolated directly to other cities, since climatic and population conditions vary, “but there is no doubt that in many urban areas there are also risks due to hot nights.”Royé is currently participating in an international study to compare what happens in other European cities, such as Madrid. Also, he acknowledges that the risk of heat death is not the same for the entire population: “Older people, children and patients with chronic diseases, as well as individuals with a low socioeconomic level, are the most vulnerable groups.””We must also take into account the heat island effect within the cities, especially in the centre,” the expert emphasizes. “This effect is observed precisely at night because the urban areas, with artificial elements such as concrete and asphalt, do not cool as quickly as the rural environment. That is why the frequency of hot nights increases in cities along with thermal stress among its neighbours.”Royé and other researchers from the University of Compostela have also applied statistical techniques to analyze the effects of heat and cold on the sales of medicines for respiratory diseases for the first time in Spain.This other study, prepared with data from A Coruña and published in the Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety journal, confirms that the risk of consuming these drugs decreases in summer and increases during the colder months, providing information that may help anticipate possible epidemics.​ Source:https://www.agenciasinc.es/en/News/Tropical-nights-increase-mortality-rate-in-Barcelonalast_img read more

Mutating DNA caught on film

first_img By Elizabeth PennisiMar. 15, 2018 , 2:00 PM DNA mutations cause tumor cells to grow out of control, but they also generate variety that enables organisms to adapt to their environments and evolve. Until now, biologists have only had crude methods for estimating the average rates and effects of mutations. But in a new study, biophysicists have documented individual mutations as they happen in bacterial cells.These changes occur at about the same rate over time—as opposed to in bursts—and only about 1% are deadly, the researchers report today in Science. Moreover, all bacteria in a given strain seem to have about the same mutation rate—about one mutation per 600 hours in normal bacteria, and about 200 mutations per 600 hours in bacteria engineered to mutate at a faster rate—they note.To see the mutations, the team built 1000 microscopic channels into a computerlike chip and placed a single bacterial cell at the closed end of each the channel, along with plenty of nutrients to survive. The bacteria carried a modified DNA repair protein that caused any mutations to glow yellow. Then, for 8 hours up to 3 days, the researchers took a picture every few minutes as new bacterial cells were formed, pushed down the channel, and then swept away by fluid flowing across the ends of these channels. Automated image processing let them count the number of mutations and assess how well the cells were doing. Dead cells signaled a deadly mutation; slower growing cells signaled a detrimental change. Mutating DNA caught on film Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img Email Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country According to its developers, the technique can be applied to assess mutation dynamics in other types of cells, even human cancer cells. And the researchers eventually hope to be able to monitor mutation rates real time in entire organisms, such as zebra fish, to see whether different tissues have different mutation rates.last_img read more

These daggers made from human bone were a deadly asset on the

first_imgThe human thigh daggers’ curvature granted the blades more mechanical strength, able to withstand about 31% more force than the cassowary daggers before breaking, the researchers report in Royal Society Open Science. That suggests warriors engineered their human bone daggers to be strong and durable, perhaps to preserve their symbolic value. On the battlefield, however, they may have preferred the relatively weaker, flattened cassowary daggers, which may have been lighter to carry or easier to stab into enemies. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) By Michael PriceApr. 24, 2018 , 7:01 PM You wouldn’t want to find yourself on the business end of a New Guinean bone dagger. In previous centuries, warriors on the South Pacific island used these blades in close-quarters combat to kill outright, finish off foes wounded by arrows or spears, or disable and capture enemies.The elaborately decorated daggers were primarily made from the leg bones of large flightless native birds called cassowaries (like the bottom dagger pictured above), potent symbols of agility and aggression. More rarely, they were fashioned from human thigh bones taken from battle-proven warriors (the top two daggers pictured). Yet, historical cassowary daggers tend to be relatively flat, whereas human bone daggers are relatively more curved, and nobody is quite sure why.To find out, a team of anthropologists and engineers investigated the structural mechanics of blades made from the different bones. A computerized tomography scanner analyzed density and geometry, while a tension machine and computer simulations assessed how much force was required to break the weapons. Email N. Dominy et al., Royal Society Open Science RSOS172067 (2018) These daggers made from human bone were a deadly asset on the battlefieldlast_img read more

Plan to drill in Alaskan wildlife refuge downplays climate impact US agency

first_img Email Read more… Plan to drill in Alaskan wildlife refuge downplays climate impact, U.S. agency argues Originally published by E&E NewsPlans to drill Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge have underestimated the effects of climate change, one arm of the Interior department is warning another.The Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) pointed to several aspects of climate change that were minimized or absent in the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) draft environmental impact statement (EIS). In some cases, the service corrected BLM characterizations of climate research. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country It’s an unusual—but not unprecedented—critique within an administration that has downplayed climate change in its regulatory actions, experts said. The administration has suffered court defeats after low-balling the emissions impact of projects; the FWS comments suggest Interior also might be underestimating how global warming affects the projects themselves.”The effects of a changing arctic environment should be further addressed within the EIS. There is a large body of literature that describes the potential landscape level changes on the North Slope, including changes in permafrost, hydrology, land cover and infrastructure stability,” the service said, pointing to several specific studies.”We recommend that studies like these be included in the analysis of potential impacts to various development scenarios,” said the formal comments signed by director of the FWS Alaska Region, Greg Siekaniec, a career official.The service corrected BLM’s statement that the biosphere is gaining mass as it sequesters a significant portion of human’s carbon dioxide emissions.”Please remove this line as a significant fraction of human-sourced CO2 is also not sequestered by the biosphere, resulting in increasing CO2 atmospheric concentrations and increasingly obvious patterns of climate change effects, particularly in the Arctic,” the service said.The impacts of climate change could affect endangered species protections, which in turn could alter demands on drilling projects.FWS said the draft “does not accurately assess” climate impacts on birds, and rebuffed insinuations that longer summers could help birds by bringing more insects and lengthening mating seasons. The service also pointed to already-visible effects from the landscape becoming more dry in some places and newly inundated from glacier melt in others.”Contrary to what is stated in the DEIS, avian habitat is changing rapidly, both on the coast and inland tundra areas” FWS said. “Please ensure the EIS accurately assesses the potential impacts to birds and their habitat resulting from a changing climate based on the best available science.”Sea-level rise, sea-ice loss and stronger storm surges will make conditions on the barrier islands more precarious for birds and polar bears than BLM acknowledges, potentially driving them inland toward operations, the service said.More flooding heightens the risk of drilling operations causing contamination of entire populations, especially with heavy metals, FWS said.The service also urged BLM to correct or remove its assertion that more saltwater intrusion could be a positive, saying there’s no evidence that “tundra may be colonized by salt-tolerant species and develop into salt marsh, a rare but important post-breeding habitat for geese.”The comments were dated March 13, a day after Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) in Silver Spring, Maryland, released leaked internal memos on the scientific “unknowns” of Arctic drilling. PEER said Interior had hidden the memos and buried unfavorable science. The department and Siekaniec said that was false (Greenwire, 12 March).Legal experts said these comments probably won’t change the trajectory of ANWR drilling by themselves, but they could offer more grist for the lawsuits that will inevitably challenge the leasing—and could drag out beyond the 2020 election. They could also form the basis for Congress rolling back the areas available to drill.”Sounds like authentic science is raising its head above water, which is refreshing,” said Michael Gerrard, an environmental law scholar at Columbia University.”The fact that another agency has raised the [climate] issue makes it more perilous to ignore it in the final EIS, but it does not necessarily compel a different outcome,” he said.It’s notable that BLM is facing such basic scientific concerns after a draft has already been published, said Kate Kelly, director of public lands at the Center for American Progress in Washington, D.C.”They’re ignoring existing, peer-reviewed literature, and two, they have made no attempt to fill the glaring science gaps on impacts to the refuge,” she said. “There’s a lot more that we need to know before we undertake such a massive project in this wildlife refuge.”An Interior spokeswoman said the FWS submission numbered among the 4,000 unique comments on the draft, which received more than a million comments overall.”BLM has an obligation to consider all of these comments—including those from its sister agency—and anticipates they will inform the Final EIS (FEIS) in multiple ways,” press secretary Molly Block said.Read the FWS comments here.Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. Copyright 2019. E&E provides essential news for energy and environment professionals at www.eenews.net By Adam Aton, E&E NewsApr. 25, 2019 , 3:00 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Parts of Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge have been opened to oil drilling after a decadeslong battle. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe The Asahi Shimbun/Contributor last_img read more

In lopsided vote US science academy backs move to eject sexual harassers

first_img Breaking with their 156-year history, members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) today voted overwhelmingly in favor of amending the elite organization’s bylaws to allow ejection of members who breach the group’s new Code of Conduct, which outlines offenses including sexual harassment. Historically, membership in NAS has been an honor conferred for life.Marcia McNutt, president of NAS, noted “the importance of the signal that [today’s vote] sends. And I’m grateful for the many members who showed support for it.”The vote by those who attended NAS’s annual business meeting in Washington, D.C., this morning was lopsided: 95 in favor; nine against; and six abstaining, according to one member who attended. But it is not final. Because of the seriousness of the proposed change to the bylaws, all 2347 academy members will be offered the chance to vote either online or by mail, which should be completed by mid-June, NAS explained in a statement. The change will require approval from a simple majority of voting members. In lopsided vote, U.S. science academy backs move to eject sexual harassers Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Buyenlarge/Contributor Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) By Meredith WadmanApr. 30, 2019 , 5:10 PM Email The vote, which would allow ejection of a member for a range of offenses against the code of conduct, including bullying, discrimination, and fabrication of research, marked the culmination of months of groundwork by McNutt and NAS’s council. They were spurred by a wave of #MeToo-era revelations of sexual harassment by scientists, including NAS members, as well as by a landmark report that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine issued last year that documented widespread sexual harassment in science, engineering, and medicine.“Finally we are starting to have enough women in powerful positions to make things happen. I’m glad I lived this long to see it,” says Nancy Hopkins, who spoke in support of the amendment at today’s meeting and is a professor emeritus of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. Hopkins was the driving force behind MIT’s groundbreaking examination of its own discriminatory treatment of female faculty 25 years ago.Vicki Lundblad, a biologist who last year settled a gender discrimination lawsuit against her institution, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, traveled to the NAS annual meeting in order to attend today’s meeting and vote on the amendment. The vote today “is a big deal,” she said afterward. “I think a lot of young people in science are looking at us and thinking: ‘Is [sexual harassment in science] going to change?’”Lundblad credited the move by NAS leaders to advocacy by neuroscientist BethAnn McLaughlin of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, who is also the founder of the nonprofit #MeTooSTEM. In May 2018, McLaughlin launched a petition urging the NAS to eject sexual harassers.McLaughlin called today’s vote “one of the many important steps every scientific society needs to take to ensure safety. Our science leaders should be ahead of the curve on decency and equity.”As ScienceInsider reported earlier this month, the bylaw amendment would allow a member’s ouster by a two-thirds vote of NAS’s 17-member council. An ejection vote would mark the last step in a process that could be initiated by anyone. That process would rely on NAS being presented with credible official findings from investigations by outside bodies and could end in less severe punishment.During this morning’s discussion, there were strong statements of support for the amendment. But a few participants raised fears that the process leading to a member’s ejection, as developed by McNutt and NAS’s council, could be misused. Some evoked the climate of fear created in the 1950s by then-Senator Joseph McCarthy (R–WI), who accused people holding all kinds of positions of supporting communism and tried to force from their positions. Some suggested every NAS member should vote on each individual ouster, rather than deferring that decision to the NAS council.NAS member Charles Bennett, an expert in the physics of computation at IBM’s Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, tried but failed, on procedural grounds, to amend the amendment. His proposed change would have limited ejection to those members who breached the code of conduct prior to being elected to NAS, but whose offenses were only later discovered. Members found to be guilty of present-day misconduct, he proposed, should not be kicked out but should be labeled as “disgraced” members—a designation that could later be reversed, he said, recalling the case of J. Robert Oppenheimer, a father of the atomic bomb, whose security clearance was revoked in 1954 for his alleged communist associations but who was later politically rehabilitated.“If there was a consensus” at the meeting, Bennett emailed afterward, “it was that the bylaw change itself, opening up the possibility of rescinding membership, was an important and necessary step, but that figuring out how and under what conditions to do it would not be a simple matter.”But McNutt was able to answer concerns about the process persuasively enough to win yes votes from nearly 90% of the those in the room. “Members were strongly in favor of the amendment,” she said. “But their concern was: ‘The devil’s in the details.’ All I had to remind them was: ‘The amendment doesn’t have any of the details.’”Those process details, she adds, are malleable, and can be adjusted by NAS members as time goes on.She also noted that the final vote is not a done deal: “If we really want to back up our code of conduct, we need to get this amendment into place.”last_img read more

Megalibraries of nanomaterials could speed clean energy and other grand challenge targets

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) E. Kluender et al., PNAS 10.1073 (2018) ‘Megalibraries’ of nanomaterials could speed clean energy and other grand challenge targets By Robert F. ServiceDec. 20, 2018 , 5:35 PM Lightweight armors, synthetic fuels, and new high-efficiency solar cells could all be the outcome of a new high-speed technique for discovering advanced materials made from ultrasmall flecks of matter.In the materials world, size matters. Particularly on the smallest length scales of just billionths of a meter, or nanometers. Nanomaterials are famous for having different optical, electrical, and catalytic properties than bulk chunks of the exact same stuff. But that makes exploring the endless possible combinations of multiple elements of different nanoscale sizes a near impossibility.Now, there’s help. Researchers have come up with a high-speed approach to make “megalibraries” of up to 5 billion combinations of different nanomaterials that vary in a controlled manner, based on the concentration of different elements they contain and the sizes of the resulting particles. To make the arrays, the team used a specialized device that contains hundreds of thousands of pyramid-shaped tips to stamp individual polymer wells of various sizes and composition, each loaded with different metal salts of interest. The stamped surface is then heated, burning away the polymer and causing the metals to form alloy particles. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe The scientists tested one such array, pictured above, and discovered a new catalyst able to make straw-shaped carbon nanotubes—prized for their ultrahigh strength and ability to serve as tiny high-speed transistors—faster than any catalyst previously discovered, as they report this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The discoveries aren’t likely to stop there, as the researchers plan to test myriad other nanomaterials in search of new and improved catalysts, electronic, and optical materials.last_img read more

MIT to use 350 million gift to bolster computer sciences

first_img Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country MIT to use $350 million gift to bolster computer sciences A $350 million gift from investment banker Stephen Schwarzman will allow the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge to “rewire” how it educates students in this foundational subject, school officials announced today.The money will help finance a new building that will house a college of computing named for its major donor. It will also allow MIT to cope with the rising demand for computer science courses from students majoring in any number of disciplines by paying for 50 new faculty members.“Roughly 40% of our current undergraduates are majoring in computer science or computer science and X,” says MIT Provost Martin Schmidt. With only 10% of the university’s 1000 faculty currently teaching computer science courses, Schmidt says, “having them teach 40% of the undergraduates has created a huge load imbalance.” By Jeffrey MervisOct. 15, 2018 , 4:05 PMcenter_img The campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge will soon be home to a new college of computer science, which will get its own building. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) dbimages/Alamy Stock Photo Computing is now part of the department of electrical engineering and computer science within MIT’s school of engineering. It is by far the largest of MIT’s five schools, serving 70% of undergraduates and 45% of graduate students.“It no longer makes sense to have computer science within electrical engineering,” says Michael Stonebraker, one of seven MIT computing faculty members who wrote an open letter last year asking MIT to consider creating a separate school of computing. Computing was being taught “in a haphazard fashion” across many departments, he says, an “inefficient and fragmented approach” that undermined the quality of instruction.The new college addresses those problems, says Schmidt, as well as “linking computation to all disciplines on campus.” That meets a growing demand for such skills by students in the social sciences, he notes. The number of students majoring in computer science and economics, for example, has tripled since the major was created 2 years ago, he notes.Half of the new faculty positions will go to the new college, and the other half will be distributed across campus. Those additional linkages will make it easier for MIT to attract and retain top talent, Schmidt says. “Right now, if we want to hire a computational linguist, it’s hard to know in which department to hire them and how to review them for promotion and tenure.”The organizational status of computing varies across other top-ranked U.S. research universities. The Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta and Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for example, already have separate colleges or schools of computing, whereas computer science at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, and the University of California, Berkeley, falls within electrical engineering/computer science departments. MIT will also hire a dean of the new college, which will open next fall. Construction has not yet begun on the new building, which is expected to be completed in 2022.Schwarzman’s donation is part of a $1 billion institutional commitment to computer science and artificial intelligence. Another $300 million for computing activities has been pledged as part of a capital campaign launched in May 2016 that has reached $4.3 billion of its $5 billion goal.last_img read more

Longunderfunded Lyme disease research gets an injection of money—and ideas

first_imgThe Lyme disease field has for years been mired in controversy—researchers receive hate mail from angry and desperate patients, and scientific disputes can be vitriolic. That may have left government agencies reluctant to wade too deep into the fray. “I think the discussion is starting to shift,” says Monica Embers, a microbiologist at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. She and others still hope for additional money from NIH and CDC for diagnostics and treatment research. CDC’s budget for Lyme disease grew this year from $10.7 million to $12 million—the first increase in 5 years, albeit a modest one. “Preventing infection is going to go a long way if we can do it,” Embers says.Symptoms of Lyme disease vary but can include a rash at the site of the tick bite, fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. After a course of antibiotics, 10% to 20% of those infected remain sick, and the question is why: Some scientists believe the bacterium can persist in the body, but others dismiss the idea. This dispute, combined with patients whom doctors often can’t help, has created a fractious field unlike almost any other.The $6 million from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), is slated to fund up to 15 projects. The funding “will get new technology out of the shadows,” spurring development of nascent approaches and collaborations, says Maria Gomes-Solecki, a veterinarian at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis who has designed an oral vaccine for mice and other rodents against B. burgdorferi. It kills the bacterium in ticks feeding on the animals. A company called US Biologic, also in Memphis, is seeking marketing approval for the vaccine from the Department of Agriculture and hopes to sell it to homeowners and health departments.”Vaccines are certainly going to be at the top” of prevention priorities for tickborne diseases, says Samuel Perdue, chief of the Basic Sciences Section in NIAID’s Bacteriology and Mycology Branch in Bethesda, Maryland, noting that the institute already funds some vaccine research.The only Lyme vaccine for people had a difficult history: It was almost 80% effective but was pulled from the market in 2002 after safety concerns surfaced and sales tanked. Since then, tickborne diseases have become a growing problem, and the black-legged tick can transmit many of them, says Richard Ostfeld, a disease ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York. He favors developing a vaccine that protects against multiple pathogens, possibly by targeting ticks instead. Some scientists are studying how to design a tick-killing vaccine for people that reacts to the tick’s salivary proteins. Ostfeld knows firsthand that this is possible: After exposure to dozens of tick bites during fieldwork, his immune system now kills ticks when they begin to feed on him. “I’m not alone,” he says. “There are people who seem to attack the tick.” Animal models have backed the approach.Nonvaccine prevention efforts are underway as well. Across 24 neighborhoods in Dutchess County in New York, Ostfeld and ecologist Felicia Keesing of Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, are leading an effort to test whether a tick-killing fungus and a pesticide that kills ticks when applied to animals can reduce infection rates in people and pets. Much of that project is supported by the Steven & Alexandra Cohen Foundation, which has spent more than $42 million on Lyme and other tickborne disease research since 2015. Two other groups, the Global Lyme Alliance and the Bay Area Lyme Foundation, have together directed more than $20 million to research in recent years. “These foundations are giving a lot of money,” says Embers, who receives foundation support. “They want translational research, and they want answers.”Foundations are keen to address the third rail of Lyme disease: how Borrelia bacteria persist—if they do—in treated patients who don’t get better. NIH’s strategic plan is due this summer, but Ostfeld says researchers coming together could make it easier for the agency to boost funding in a polarized field. “The responsibility,” he suggests, “lies at least in part with the community to try to avoid so much acrimony and to try to find areas of agreement.” Months after a U.S. Congress–mandated working group sounded the alarm about tickborne illnesses and urged more federal action and money, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is readying a strategic plan for these diseases. Last week it also, serendipitously, issued a rare solicitation for prevention proposals in tickborne diseases. The new pot of money, $6 million in 2020, represents a significant boost; NIH spent $23 million last year on Lyme disease, by far the most common tickborne illness, within $56 million devoted to tickborne diseases overall.”I’m happy for anything” new going toward research, says John Aucott, director of the Johns Hopkins Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center in Baltimore, Maryland, who chaired the group that wrote the 2018 report. Strategies that may garner support include vaccines that target multiple pathogens carried by ticks or that kill the ticks themselves.Aucott’s panel included academic and government scientists as well as patient advocates; it formed as a result of the 2016 21st Century Cures Act. The group’s report described tickborne diseases as a “serious and growing threat.” About 30,000 confirmed Lyme disease cases were reported last year to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), but the agency believes the real number to be more than 300,000. Cases of Lyme disease have roughly tripled since the 1990s as ticks carrying Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative bacterium, have spread in response to climate change, neighborhoods encroaching on animal habitats, and other ecologic shifts. The black-legged tick can carry the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Long-underfunded Lyme disease research gets an injection of money—and ideas Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img By Jennifer Couzin-FrankelApr. 17, 2019 , 3:00 PM Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) ISTOCK.COM/DIETERMEYRL last_img read more

NIH fears goodgovernment bill would hamper peer review

first_img The much-admired system to review grant proposals at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, has become the latest flashpoint in a long-running battle between Congress and the executive branch over how the U.S. government manages advisory bodies.NIH’s parent body, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in Washington, D.C., opposes legislation moving rapidly through Congress that is aimed at making those committees more transparent. The department says that if the bill becomes law, its requirements could cause monthslong delays in appointing reviewers to NIH study sections and create massive amounts of additional paperwork. In addition, “requiring [NIH peer reviewers] to go through this process could be a major disincentive to service,” HHS argued in a 9 April letter to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R–KY).Supporters of the bill say they responded to HHS’s concerns, first expressed in a similar letter sent to McConnell last year, by tweaking the bill to exempt NIH study sections. But HHS officials are now demanding the exclusion of all HHS advisory bodies, including those at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, they say. Such a blanket exemption would gut the proposed reforms, proponents argue. Shawn Clover/Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0) An NIH spokesperson, Renate Myles, says “NIH does not comment on pending legislation.” But NIH officials are fuming about the bill, according to one congressional staffer who’s familiar with the issue and requested anonymity. “We’ve been told that NIH will burn down the Capitol if this passes,” the staffer says.Advocacy groups, meanwhile, have split on the issue. Biomedical research groups are worried about the bill’s potential impact on NIH. But environmental groups say any additional red tape is a small price to pay for increased government transparency.Long-running effortAt issue is a 1972 law called the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA). FACA governs the thousands of advisory committees serving federal agencies. It sets rules for appointing members and conducting meetings, often requiring panels to include members with varying points of view and backgrounds and to open their work to the public.For decades, however, there have been complaints that many federal agencies have found ways to defeat FACA’s requirements. Under former President George W. Bush, for example, watchdog groups complained that some advisory panels were inappropriately hiding their work, and that administration officials were requiring pledges of political loyalty from prospective appointees to panels dealing with energy and environmental regulations.In response to such practices, Representative William Lacy Clay (D–MO) has repeatedly introduced bills to reform FACA that have won overwhelmingly bipartisan support. For example, the chairman of the staunchly conservative House Freedom Caucus, Representative Mark Meadows (R–NC), praised the liberal Clay as a “tireless advocate for this important reform” shortly before the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously passed this year’s version, H.R. 1608, on 12 March.Now, the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee is set to take up the bill on Wednesday. In advance of that vote, HHS delivered its 9 April letter detailing its concerns.Differing views“HHS opposes this bill,” the letter declares, citing several elements it finds objectionable.One is a provision requiring agencies to designate advisory panel members who review grant applications as special government employee (SGEs). That would put into law what is already supposed to be a government-wide policy. Such SGEs must declare any conflicts of interest on a standard government form that remains confidential, as well as filling out other documents pertaining to their professional activities.At NIH, defining reviewers as SGEs would be a big change. The agency now classifies its study section members as consultants in order to exempt them from the paperwork requirements that come with being an SGE. NIH also uses its own form for panelists to report potential conflicts. The variations are permitted under the Public Health Service Act that governs NIH’s behavior, according to HHS, and H.R. 1608 would wreak havoc with long-standing NIH practices.“It could jeopardize NIH’s peer review process,” wrote Matthew Bassett, HHS’s assistant secretary for legislation. “Appointing individual SGEs requires the completion of 13 forms, one of which must be notarized, totaling 94 pages. … The appointment and ethics review process could take months.”Many scientists may not be willing to run that gauntlet, the letter speculates. Reviewers volunteer their time “out of professional courtesy,” Bassett writes. “Requiring [reviewers] to go through this process could be a major disincentive to service.”Some biomedical research advocacy groups have echoed those concerns. Clay’s bill “could have unintended consequences harmful to patients and taxpayers,” Mary Woolley of Research!America in Arlington, Virginia, and Jeff Allen of Friends of Cancer Research in Washington, D.C., warned McConnell last year after the House approved a similar bill. “These consequences include hamstringing the peer-review process at NIH, compromising the ability of the Food and Drug Administration to thoroughly and efficiently evaluate the safety and effectiveness of new medical advances, and adding more administrative time and costs to the advisory committee process than is necessary to meet legislative intent,” they wrote in April 2018.But environmental activists view the changes in a much more positive light. “I don’t think the scientific community should set itself apart” from meeting the goals of FACA, says Andrew Rosenberg, head of the Union of Concerned Scientists’s Center for Science and Democracy in Washington, D.C., which has filed numerous suits claiming the Environmental Protection Agency and other federal agencies haven’t followed FACA rules.Complying with FACA “might become a little more inconvenient” for agencies under the new law, “but I don’t think it’s crippling,” says Rosenberg, a professor of natural resources at the University of New Hampshire in Durham and former senior official at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “And there are a lot of benefits from being able to say that the [peer-review] process is totally transparent.”At the National Science Foundation (NSF) in Alexandria, Virginia, which also relies on advisory panels to review mountains of grant applications annually, officials have not yet taken an official stance on the legislation, says Lawrence Rudolph, NSF’s general counsel. But the agency has long followed requirements that are included in the bill, Rudolph says, and “we have not found them to be onerous or burdensome.”What FACA requiresTo understand what’s at stake, it’s necessary to look at differences between how NIH and NSF implement FACA when it comes to assembling the panels that review funding applications.At NIH, most of the peer-review work is done through standing committees called study sections, which typically meet three times a year. Scientists typically serve a 4-year term, although study sections also use ad hoc members for their expertise in specialized areas. In contrast, NSF merit review is conducted by one-off panels convened by program managers to handle each round of proposals that come in over the transom or in response to a particular solicitation.It’s a massive logistical challenge. NIH enlists as many as 35,000 reviewers for 173 study sections in any given year; NSF taps roughly half that number of scientists. Last year, it cost NSF $56 million to run the panels; NIH’s costs are much higher because of the larger volume.At both agencies, the grant review groups already fall within the purview of FACA, as do the higher-level bodies that provide strategic advice (councils for each NIH institute, and committees for every NSF directorate). NIH and NSF provide a limited amount of information about the makeup of those review panels—NIH posts the name and institutional affiliations of every member before each study section meets, for example, while NSF posts an annual master list of its reviewers on a government-wide website without identifying the specific panel on which they served.One reason HHS says it objects to H.R. 1608 is because it would require NIH to collect and provide more information about each committee member, including their expertise and any potential conflicts of interest. That requirement, which goes along with defining reviewers as special government employees, will create burdensome paperwork and delays in appointments, HHS argues.At NSF, in contrast, Rudolph says meeting the bill’s requirements won’t be a problem. That’s because NSF has defined its reviewers as special government employees and collected the needed information ever since FACA went into effect. “We thought it would be a good way to ensure the integrity of the review process,” he explains. “And we don’t think the time frame required to appoint them is of any consequence. Finding the people most qualified in that particular area is the real controlling factor.”H.R. 1608 would also prevent agencies from creating advisory bodies, such subcommittees or working groups, that are not subject to FACA’s open-meetings requirement because they technically report only to a FACA committee, not the agency itself. At NIH, if that ban had been in effect last year, it would have affected the way agency officials organized an advisory group that examined the hot-button issue of foreign influences on U.S.-funded researchers. Created in August 2018 and comprised of university presidents and other senior academic leaders, it met in private and surfaced only to report its findings in December 2018 to the NIH director’s advisory council, which is covered by FACA.Is NIH exempt?Biomedical advocacy groups admit they were caught by surprise when the bill passed the House in March. They are still reviewing what was changed since last year’s version, but most appear skeptical the changes go far enough.“We want a blanket exemption for all NIH study sections,” says Jennifer Zeitzer, director of legislative relations for the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology in Bethesda, which is preparing a public statement on the legislation. “The intent [of Clay’s bill] is good, but we worry about the negative impact on individuals who agree to serve.”Clay says his bill would grant NIH an exemption and that HHS has misrepresented the outcome of negotiations held last fall after Senator Lamar Alexander (R–TN), at the request of NIH and HHS officials, blocked a previous version of the bill from coming up for a Senate vote.“The fixes made in the current version of the bill are much more accommodating than ever before,” Clay says. “I have included significant changes requested by HHS/NIH. But exempting all HHS panels is simply not acceptable.”“The [new] language came from HHS,” says a Democratic committee aide. “This is what they asked us to put in to solve the problem, and we did. Now they are running around telling people that the bill is terrible and that the sky is going to fall, without acknowledging the significant concessions that we made.”The broader exemption that HHS is arguing for raises numerous problems, supporters of H.R. 1608 say. It would allow FDA, for instance, to appoint representatives from drug companies or other parties with potential conflicts of interest to influential advisory committees that are not subject to FACA. That “is absurd,” says the committee aide. “We’re never going to agree to that.”Exempting NIH “is not the ideal scenario,” the aide adds. “But in a show of good faith, Mr. Clay and [the authorizing Senate committee] agreed to add the language that HHS requested to exempt NIH from certain provisions because agency officials felt it would such a burden and harm their peer-review groups.”It’s unlikely that the Senate panel will have found a compromise by the time it takes up the bill on Wednesday. But Rosenberg is hoping that legislators will keep trying.“We are facing some serious problems because of how this administration is managing scientific advisory panels,” he says. “Would I like to exempt NIH panels? Sure. But not at the expense of righting the ship.”Rosenberg worries that Alexander or another senator might again accede to HHS’s wishes and block the bill from being taken up by the full Senate. “Another hold could kill it,” he says. “And we need to make sure that FACA is doing what it’s supposed to do.” NIH fears good-government bill would hamper peer review Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country By Jeffrey MervisMay. 13, 2019 , 5:30 PM Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)last_img read more

Fishing Baskets From the 14th Century Discovered by Two Brothers on a

first_imgThe last time a certain set of fishing baskets was used was most likely the 14th century: a time of plague, of war with France, of Chaucer and Plantagenet kings. Next stop: the year 2018.Fishing baskets buried for hundreds of years under silt and clay have been found by two brothers walking off the Monmouthshire coast, reported the BBC.The items, which could date back to the 14th century, were uncovered on the Severn Estuary during recent storms that washed away the layers of mud, sand and silt.Image © BLACK ROCK LAVE NET HERITAGE FISHERYMartin and Richard Morgan, who found the four baskets, said the level of detail was incredible.“It’s amazing to think the last person to see them was possibly in the 14th century,” said Martin.It is now the close season for the Black Rock Lave Net Fishery, but the fishermen kept an eye on the fishing grounds. They said in an interview that they often find many things of interest, ranging from prehistoric animal bones to wooden shipwrecks.Black Rock Lave Net Heritage FisheryMartin Morgan, secretary of the fishery, explained to the South Wales Argus that it is unusual to uncover so many baskets grouped together.Morgan said: “The baskets would have been baited and pegged to the estuary bed at low tide. The catch would have been green eels and lamprey.”Image © BLACK ROCK LAVE NET HERITAGE FISHERY“They are made of willow and hazel in an urn shape with a non-return built into the neck. The overall length is around two feet.”Previous finds made by the fishermen that have been recorded by Cadw and carbon dated by Reading University were from the 12th to the 15th century. These baskets are of a similar design.A Roman fishing basket (Latin nassa)It’s clearly been a popular place for fishing for a very long time.“People have fished this estuary for thousands of years, and it’s great for our fishermen to uncover and record some history.”Lave net fishing, as practiced by Morgan and his colleagues, is an ancient fishing method, recorded on the estuary in the 17th century. However, it is thought to have been around for much longer.Wagenya fishing baskets. Photo by Tornasole CC BY-SA 3.0The Black Rock Lave Net Fishermen are now the last traditional salmon fishery on the Welsh region of the estuary. The tradition has been passed down through the generations.The estuary has played a significant part in the life of those that have dwelt in the area for thousands of years, said transceltic.The area of Caldicott saw considerable activity at the time of the Bronze Age. Close to the Nedern Brook beside Caldicot Castle, excavations uncovered a plank from an ancient boat and wooden structures in the former riverbed.Read another story from us: Discovery of Military Plane Wreck Could Solve 50-yr-old ‘Homesick Pilot’ MysterySudbrook probably played a role in guarding the Severn estuary at an ancient ferry crossing place. Sudbrook hillfort is also located on the coast, and is thought to have been built and occupied by the Silures from the 2nd century BC.The Silures were a powerful Celtic tribe that lived in what is now southeast Wales.Nancy Bilyeau, a former staff editor at Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, and InStyle, has written a trilogy of historical thrillers for Touchstone Books. Her new book, The Blue, is a spy story set in the 18th-century porcelain world. For more information, go to www.nancybilyeau.comlast_img read more

Calcium specks could be key prognostic marker of heart disease in South

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jan 11 2019Specks of calcium in the heart’s artery walls could be an important prognostic marker of early cardiovascular disease in South Asians and may help guide treatment in this population, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco.In a study of nearly 700 patients with ethnic backgrounds from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan, UCSF researchers found that South Asian men had the same high rates of change in calcification of their artery walls over a five-year period as white men, the group with the highest rates of cardiovascular disease.South Asians are known to have a high chance of developing cardiovascular disease and represent more than 60 percent of cardiovascular disease patients worldwide. They also develop risk factors such as high blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes at a younger age than other racial and ethnic groups. However, it remains unclear which clinical factors could help determine those at highest risk.”While South Asians have high cardiovascular disease rates, there are few prospective studies in the world that have focused on determining the risk factors,” said lead author Alka Kanaya, MD, UCSF Health internist and professor of medicine at UCSF. “The presence and change of coronary artery calcium may be useful for risk prediction in this ethnic population and may better guide the judicious use of statin and other preventive therapies.”Early signs of coronary artery calcification (CAC), in which calcium specks appear in artery walls, can be detected through a computed tomography (CT) scan. In other ethnic groups, high CAC scores have been proven to be an early sign of those at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease.The American Heart Association recently recommended CAC testing in individuals with intermediate heart disease risk to help determine whether they should be treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. These guidelines classify South Asians as a high-risk group.Related StoriesResearch opens possibility of developing single-dose gene therapy for inherited arrhythmiasSmoking triples the risk of death from cardiovascular diseaseRNA-binding protein SRSF3 appears to be key factor for proper heart contraction, survivalThe study, appearing online Jan. 11, 2019, in the Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA), is among the findings being generated by the ongoing Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. Led by Kanaya, MASALA is the first long-term study in this population that aims to better understand the factors leading to heart disease and guide prevention and treatment. Since the study began in 2010, it has enrolled more than 1,100 South Asian immigrants living in the San Francisco Bay Area and greater Chicago area, most of whom have spent decades in the United States.In the JAHA study, Kanaya and her colleagues measured calcification in 698 MASALA patients from CT scans taken five years apart. They compared the incidence and progression rates of CAC to other populations using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a study similar to MASALA that is investigating potential factors for early atherosclerosis in more than 6,800 diverse participants from six U.S. cities.The researchers found that South Asian men had a higher rate of new calcification than South Asian women, 8.8 percent to 3.6 percent, respectively. After accounting for differences in age, diabetes, high blood pressure and statin use, increases in CAC were similar in South Asian men compared to white men but 122 percent, 64 percent and 54 percent larger than the increases in African Americans, Latinos and Chinese Americans, respectively. There was no significant difference in the amount of CAC change among women in different race/ethnic groups.”Both CAC burden and progression have been shown to be independent predictors of coronary heart disease in whites, blacks, Latinos and Chinese Americans,” Kanaya said. “The next step for us is to determine if CAC burden and/or progression predicts those at highest risk of having a heart attack or stroke among South Asians.”Source: https://www.ucsf.edu/last_img read more

New targetable vulnerability in breast cancer cells discovered

first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Mar 29 2019Researchers at the University of Helsinki and Karolinska Institutet have discovered new molecular mechanisms of breast cancer cell signaling that contribute to aggressive behavior of cancer cells.Uncontrolled growth of cancer arises from the imbalanced regulation of cell division and programmed cell death. To stimulate the growth, cancer cells can induce multiple signaling receptors; including FGFR4 receptor tyrosine kinase, for which the cancer promoting signaling routes have remained incompletely understood.In breast cancer, FGFR4 is especially overexpressed in the subset, where cell proliferation is driven by another related signaling receptor, HER2. Targeted therapies against HER2 are in use to effectively treat the patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Because in these tumors excessive FGFR4 expression associates with poor patient survival, combinatorial drug targeting of FGFR4 could prevent the spread of improve treatment efficacy for those patients whose tumors spread aggressively despite HER2 targeting.Related StoriesEngineered stem cells offer new treatment for metastatic bone cancerSugary drinks linked to cancer finds studyBacteria in the birth canal linked to lower risk of ovarian cancerBased on this idea, the new study led by Associate Professor Kaisa Lehti first comprehensively elucidated the functions of FGFR4 by screening thousands of candidate proteins that can be modified by FGFR4 mediated phosphorylation.”Unexpectedly, we discovered that FGFR4 efficiently phosphorylates several essential proteins of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway”, Lehti tells. As the name suggests, Hippo pathway suppresses uncontrolled growth, and disturbances of the Hippo pathway signaling contribute to outgrowth of the tumors.Biochemical studies on breast cancer cells revealed that, by phosphorylating MST1/2 Hippo kinases, FGFR4 not only regulated growth, but also prevented the induction of programmed cell death. In these cancers driven by both HER2 and FGFR4 signaling, the cells were forced to actively suppress programmed cell death pathways via the herein identified mechanism to survive and grow.Although such complex cancer cell signaling mechanisms may seem peculiar and almost invincible, they provide also great chances for drug targeting. FGFR4 receptor has distinct structural features allowing for specific targeting with drugs, and several compounds of this type are already in use for basic research and clinical trials. In this study, the researchers utilized a comprehensive oncology drug testing, which revealed that a treatment combining an FGFR4 targeting drug either with HER2 targeted therapy or modulators of the cell intrinsic death program efficiently reduced breast cancer cell viability.”This clearly reveals a co-targetable vulnerability of cancer cell signaling, and these promising results warrant future studies to investigate the potential of FGFR4 targeting to combat HER2 positive breast cancer or other cancer types where FGFR4 is overexpressed”, Lehti summarizes. Source:https://www.helsinki.fi/en/news/health-news/researchers-discovered-a-new-targetable-vulnerability-in-breast-cancer-cellslast_img read more

Health sector gives blockchain glowing prognosis

first_img © 2018 AFP Currently, says IBM, “around 80 percent of health data is invisible to current systems because it’s unstructured.”In Europe, the MyHealthMyData uses a blockchain model compatible with tough new EU privacy laws that came into effect last month on online personal data protection. “We only stock in the blockchain links to information, and not the information itself,” MyHealthMyData coordinator David Manset told AFP.MyHealthMyData, helped with 3.5 million euros ($3.8 million) of EU finance and whose partners include Germany’s Siemens, prioritises ease of access to health data and the ease of sharing clinical trials data where administrative tasks currently eat up around “80 percent of researchers’ time,” according to Manset.Yet a balance has to be struck between people’s right to have their data disposed of—the “right to be forgotten” in terms of wiping their digital information trace—set against blockchain’s key selling points of immutability and unlocking efficiency advantages.Some US estimates put the potential gains not least from cutting administrative and operational waste at hundreds of billions of dollars in a market where global expenditures surpassed $3 trillion in 2017 and will hit a projected $8.7 trillion by 2020, according to Deloitte.MyHealthMyData suggests if somebody wishes definitively to erase his or her data from the trove then the links to that information could be rendered unusable rather than cause an actual break in the chain.All cherry; no cake?Manset explains that “we see blockchain as underpinning third party trust.”But Anca Petre, co-founder of 23 Consulting, specialising in blockchain health sector potential, thinks large scale industry adoption will take time considering the sensitive nature of the data.”For that we would have to have 100 percent digitised data and software inter-operability” for all parties, which is very far from being the case today, Petre told AFP.”The first issue is to get everybody on board” which “will take time,” concedes Luca Comparini, in charge of blockchain at IBM France.Petre is blunter.”Blockchain is the cherry on the cake. But first you need the cake,” she told AFP on this sidelines of the recent Vivatech salon in Paris. HSBC, ING banks announce blockchain first This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Proponents say blockchain could revolutionise data analysis and improve responses to health crises such as four laboratory-confirmed Ebola cases in the United States in 2014 Citation: Health sector gives blockchain glowing prognosis (2018, June 6) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-health-sector-blockchain-prognosis.html These are just some of the potential boosts for global healthcare the widespread use of blockchain technology, still in its relative infancy, could bring to the table, the sector hopes.The myriad potential applications of the cutting-edge technology used by cryptocurrencies led by bitcoin are countless—and gradually making their presence felt, albeit for now in small, disparate doses.The blockchain uses chunks of data via distributed ledger technology, permitting the secure, immutable and transparent sharing of almost any form of information. The concept led Forbes magazine recently to observe that “it seems that blockchain is about to have an impact on nearly every industry”.The technology has steadily been creeping into sectors from finance and cybersecurity to logistics, from agro-business to energy via air transport.In the health sector, a number of trial projects are already sifting data, the goal being to guarantee security of medical systems and manage patients’ digital dossiers.”Blockchain is already being used in pilots for health data analytics, medical device security and electronic patient records,”French pharma giant Sanofi said in a recent note.”Beyond that is the potential to apply the technology to everything, from more efficient clinical trials and speedier approvals of new therapies to reducing counterfeiting and increasing transparency about cost.” Respect right to be forgottenIn the United States, IBM Watson Health has been working with US food safety body the Food and Drug Administration to come up with a blockchain-based, seamless and secure health data exchange system.IBM Watson Health is also teaming with US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) to determine how blockchain can facilitate secure data exchange.The idea is to use a blockchain platform to revolutionise data analysis through cognitive computing and improve epidemiological responses to health crises such as that of 2014, when CDCs earned some criticism over their response to four laboratory-confirmed Ebola cases in the United States. Securing safe interchange of patient data, improving the conduct of clinical tests and medicine traceability, and lowering costs. Explore furtherlast_img read more

Toyota warns nodeal Brexit would stall output at UK plant

first_img Explore further BMW to pause UK output of Minis after Brexit “My view is that if Britain crashes out of the EU at the end of March we will see production stops in our factory,” Marvin Cooke, managing director at the Burnaston plant, told the BBC.The plant, which employs 2,500 staff, produced nearly 150,000 cars last year, 90 percent for export to the European Union.It relies on components from the EU for its “just-in-time” production of the Auris and the Avensis modelsBusiness minister Greg Clark said the warning highlighted the need for a deal.”The evidence from not just Toyota but other manufacturers is that we need to absolutely be able to continue what has been a highly successful set of supply chains,” he told the BBC.”We need to have a deal… we want to have the best deal that will allow as I say not just the success at present to be enjoyed but for us to grasp this opportunity.”Negotiations between Britain and the EU are currently gridlocked after Brussels rejected Prime Minister Theresa May’s plans, with the clock ticking down until departure in March 2019. © 2018 AFP Japanese car giant Toyota is warning that a no-deal Brexit will temporarily halt production at its plant in Derby, central Englandcenter_img Japanese car giant Toyota on Saturday warned that a no-deal Brexit would temporarily halt production at its plant in Derby, central England. Citation: Toyota warns no-deal Brexit would stall output at UK plant (2018, September 29) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-toyota-no-deal-brexit-stall-output.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Machine learning tracks moving cells

first_img Open-source software tracks neural activity in real time Both developing babies and elderly adults share a common characteristic: the many cells making up their bodies are always on the move. As we humans commute to work, cells migrate through the body to get their jobs done. Biologists have long struggled to quantify the movement and changing morphology of cells through time, but now, scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have devised an elegant tool to do just that. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Usiigaci, a software developed by the Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit, allows users to easily segment, track and analyze the migration of label-free cells. The tool can be used as an all-in-one solution to quantify cell migration, or can be employed as three separate applications (ie for segmentation, tracking, and data analysis, respectively). Using the machine learning infrastructure known as a “neural network,” the system allows users to train it on different data sets and analyzes images as a simplified human brain would. Credit: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Using machine learning, the researchers designed a software to analyze microscopic snapshots of migrating cells. They named the software Usiigaci, a Ryukyuan word that refers to tracing the outlines of objects, as the innovative tool detects the changing outlines of individual cells. Usiigaci, described in a paper published March 13, 2019 in SoftwareX, is now available online for anyone to use, along with a video tutorial explaining the software.In the womb, a baby’s cells migrate to precise locations so that each arm, leg, and organ grows in its proper place. Our immune cells race through the body to mend wounds after injury. Cancerous cells metastasize by traveling through the body, spreading tumors to new tissues. To test the efficacy of new medicines, drug developers track the movement of cells before and after treatment. The Usiigaci software finds applications in all these areas of study and more. “This is an all-in-one solution to get us from raw images to quantitative data on cell migration,” said Hsieh-Fu Tsai, first author of the study. Tsai is a graduate student and a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) DC1 research fellow in the OIST Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit, led by Prof. Amy Shen. “Our software is at least 100 times faster than manual methods, which are currently the gold-standard for these types of experiments because computers are not yet powerful enough.””We’re hoping this software can become quite useful for the scientific community,” said Prof. Amy Shen, principal investigator of the unit and senior author of the study. “For any biological study or drug screening that requires you to track cellular responses to different stimuli, you can use this software.” Provided by Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreencenter_img Explore further Citation: Machine learning tracks moving cells (2019, March 13) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-machine-tracks-cells.html Play The Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit has devised a machine learning software to segment, track, and analyze the movement of migrating cells. Named Usiigaci, a Ryukyuan word that means “tracing,” the software significantly outperforms existing programs and has many applications across biology and medicine. Credit: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Machine Learning Makes Usiigaci Adaptable In order to observe cells under the microscope, scientists often steep them in dye or tweak their genes to make them glow in eye-popping colors. But coloring cells alters their movement, which in turn skews the experimental results. Some scientists attempt to study cell migration without the help of fluorescent tags, using so-called “label-free” methods, but end up running into a different problem; Label-free cells blend into the background of microscopic images, making them incredibly difficult to analyze with existing computer software. More information: Hsieh-Fu Tsai et al. Usiigaci: Instance-aware cell tracking in stain-free phase contrast microscopy enabled by machine learning, SoftwareX (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.softx.2019.02.007 Usiigaci hops this hurdle by allowing scientists to train the software over time. Biologists act as teachers, providing the software new images to study so that it can come to recognize one cell from the next. A fast learner, the program quickly adapts to new sets of data and can easily track the movement of single cells, even if they’re crammed together like commuters on the Tokyo metro.”Most software…cannot tell cells in high-density apart; basically, they’re segmenting into a glob,” said Tsai. “With our software, we can segment correctly even if cells are touching. We can actually do single-cell tracking throughout the entire experiment.” Usiigaci is currently the fastest software capable of tracking the movement of label-free cells at single-cell resolution on a personal laptop.Software Mimics the Human Brain The researchers designed Usiigaci to process images as if it were a simplified human brain. The strategy enables the software to trace the outlines of individual cells, monitor their movement moment to moment, and transform that information into crunchable numbers.The program is built around a machine learning infrastructure known as a “convolutional neural network.” roughly based on how brain cells work together to process incoming information from the outside world. When our eyes capture light from the environment, they call on neurons to analyze those signals and figure out what we’re looking at and where it is in space. The neurons first sketch out the scene in broad strokes then pass the information on to the next set of cells, progressively rendering the image in more and more detail. Neural networks work similarly, except each “neuron” is a collection of code rather than a physical cell.This design grants Usiigaci its accuracy and adaptability. Looking forward, the researchers aim to develop neural networks to identify different components within cells, rather than just their outlines. With these tools in hand, scientists could easily assess whether a cell is healthy or diseased, young or old, derived from one genetic lineage or another. Like Usiigaci, these programs would have utility in fundamental biology, biotechnology research and beyond.last_img read more

How Libra could hasten Facebooks demise

first_imgWill Libra be Facebook’s downfall? Credit: Shutterstock Provided by The Conversation This started to legitimize commercial uses of the internet for the general public, but was not without its controversies at the time. Overall, the relays announcement helped give legitimacy and publicity to the emerging public commercial internet. It started the path to weakening the centralized power of Compuserve and MCI.At first, the cutting-edge announcement by Compuserve and MCI gave them an advantage. It also gave them the opportunity to shape some of the initial public conceptions of the public internet. Traditional industries started coming online, giving further legitimacy to internet commerce. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. Historical Internet users by world region since 1990. Credit: Max Roser Compuserve (the first major commercial online service provider) and MCI Mail (one of the first commercial e-mail service providers) introduced commercial e-mail relays to the public internet. These relays connected their centralized networks to the public, outside of their direct control. Facebook’s announcement of entering the distributed trust era with Libra, a new cryptocurrency, is the modern-day equivalent. And it’s likely to have the same result. Private precursor to public internetLaunched in 1969, Compuserve was an innovator in shared computing. In 1979, it launched Micronet, the first consumer e-mail system. This was quickly followed in 1980 with CB Simulator, the first real-time online chat service.Compuserve quickly added a wide range of consumer information services such as weather, stock quotes and discussion forums. It tied people together globally through its its centrally owned worldwide network.By 1991, Compuserve had more than 500,000 simultaneous online users. In 1995, it was the largest online service with over three million users.It has since been called the “Google of the ’80s.” But the big difference is that its network was private and centrally controlled. It was not an open network like the public internet.Publicizing the commercial internetEarly coverage of Compuserve and MCI’s gateways described the relatively unknown internet as a worldwide research network of government agencies, universities and commercial firms. It’s hard to teach an old dog new tricks, including in the tech sector. Credit: Pixabay, CC BY-NC-ND Bank of England to mull access for likes of Facebook’s Libracenter_img When Mark Zuckerberg was five years old in 1989, two dominant players in telecommunications made a big announcement. But these organizations were designed in a time of centralized control. Their model of charging consumers was based on usage. Compuserve stuck with that old model and as late as 1994 they still charged 15 cents per Internet e-mail received—including for spam. Power shiftsThe shift to more distributed production models, where content was produced by people outside of the organization, was a new world. Many, including Compuserve and MCI, eventually lost power to be replaced by new organizations designed for this new content production model. In 1994, a New York Times piece suggested “…it makes more economic sense to forget Compuserve and get an Internet account, where mail is free.”This eventually led to the growth of many modern-day platform companies such as Facebook (created in 2003) and Uber (founded in 2009). Such organizations became dominant powerful companies very quickly, disrupting every major industry.Silicon Valley modelThe transition to the Information Age created new distributed business models.Modern platform organizations operate with a business model focused on dominating a central, powerful matchmaking role. The Facebook platform matches advertisers with eyeballs, for example. The Uber model matches riders with drivers. The power of critical mass and the legitimacy of enabling trusted transactions are two keys to the success of platforms. And so the venture capital funding model focuses on building rapid, sustainable growth of these trusted middlemen. Much of the modern Silicon Valley success story is built around this simple logic.This evolutionary process parallels the recent emergence of what are known as distributed trust technologies such as blockchain. The public internet shifted from central control to a shared infrastructure with distributed production. Now centralized trust is shifting to a shared infrastructure with distributed trust. Distributed trust technologies displace middlemen in transactions, and make us question the role of centralized organizations. Instead of trusting central organizations, people place their trust in the technology itself.The previous disruptors are being disrupted themselves.Facebook’s Libra partners (including Uber, Ebay, Paypal, Spotify, Visa, and Mastercard) read like a Who’s Who of middlemen organizations that are being threatened with disruption by distributed trust.Old dogsOrganizational theory shows that when market conditions change drastically, organizational inertia can give an advantage to new companies or institutions. Old dogs have a hard time learning new tricks.So it’s no surprise that Libra is entering the space with a “permissioned” model of trust. Such models centralize decision power with a select few—the initial Libra partners. They are not truly distributed trust models. They are closer to the distributed production models so familiar to major dominant platforms of the last technological wave. On top of that, Facebook will separately offer a proprietary centrally controlled wallet, Calibra, to facilitate Libra transactions.The Libra white paper promises an eventual relaxing of that centralized control to a “permissionless” model. But it offers no realistic path or requirement to do so. It asks participants to “trust us” that a truly distributed trust model will come in the future. LegitimizationHistory suggests Facebook’s introduction of Libra will ultimately help legitimize distributed trust technologies. Major players endorsing Libra adds legitimacy to distributed trust technologies. The initial actions of Compuserve and MCI Mail led to government legislation. The increased focus on distributed trust generated by Libra will too. Part of this is due to past breaches of trust by Facebook. In fact, there are already calls for regulation in the United States, Europe and Australia. Regulations and public discourse will help to bring further legitimacy to distributed trust models. Regulators should be cautious about biasing legislation to favour incumbents, however, and ensure an open evolution of the true capabilities of distributed trust. EvolutionSuch legitimacy reduces the major barriers to new business models built on a shared, distributed trust infrastructure. This creates a major opportunity for new forms of organizing designed without the burdens of past organizational inertia. There is a good chance that Libra’s partners will gain short-term power with this move. Technology diffusion processes can reward first movers. But those companies were not initially designed to survive in such distributed trust models, and are plagued by organizational inertia.So the creation of Libra, and the legitimacy it will give to the underlying technologies, paradoxically will ultimately speed the demise of the very same organizations. Bitcoin’s price, for example, has soared since the Libra announcement, even though Bitcoin itself is likely to be eventually disrupted by others.The stars of the modern, platform-based internet are likely to eventually join the ranks of Compuserve and MCI Mail. They will be replaced with the next generation of organizing designed for these new models of distributed trust—and not burdened by the inertia of the centrally controlled past. Perhaps Facebook is the Compuserve of 2019. Explore further Citation: How Libra could hasten Facebook’s demise (2019, June 25) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-libra-hasten-facebook-demise.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Greenlands Superfast Ice Slides Could Be Bad News for Climate Change

first_img Originally published on Live Science. Historic Photos Paint Picture of Greenland Ice Loss | Climate Central Greenland’s ice sheet is sliding way more than previously thought, according to a new study. This means that the ice sheet can change faster in a warming climate, a group of researchers reported July 10 in the journal Science Advances. “Understanding ice flow is quite important to predicting future melt from Greenland,” said study lead author Nathan Maier, a doctoral candidate at the University of Wyoming. Ice flows bring ice from the cold interior regions of the Greenland ice sheet to its warmer edges, where the ice melts. [Images of Melt: Earth’s Vanishing Ice]These Sharks Were Too Busy to Notice a Bigger Predator Watching ThemThe unexpected twist at the end of this feeding frenzy delighted scientists.Credit: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, Windows to the Deep 2019Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really Loud00:35关闭选项Automated Captions – en-US facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65930-greenland-ice-sheet-sliding.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0002:2802:28  Ice flow happens through two different processes: the sliding of ice across the bed and deformation, which turns the ice into a kind of “flowing molasses,” Maier said. Understanding the relative scale of these two different types of movement helps scientists determine how much ice will move to high-melt areas along edges of the ice sheet. Maier and his team drilled boreholes into the ice using a large drill. They also installed 212 tilt sensors, which measure the amount of deformation and sliding. The researchers took measurements of ice movement from 2014 to 2016, finding that the Greenland Ice Sheet is sliding really, really fast over the underlying bedrock. “This is quite surprising as these regions are thought to have much slower sliding velocities than regions that are resting on slippery mud,” Maier told Live Science. “Even more surprising is that we recorded this behavior during winter, when there is no surface melt, which can further lubricate the bed and increase the rate of sliding.” What this means is that “even over these relatively boring, slow-moving regions of the ice sheet resting on rock, ice can be rapidly brought down to the high-melt zones,” he added. The researchers even found that Greenland’s main continental ice sheet slides more than parts of the incredibly fast-moving glaciers on the periphery, such as Jakobshavn in west Greenland. Past work showed that global warming has changed ice motion along the ice sheet’s edges, resulting in more thickening or thinning, which in turn causes changes in surface melt. “Now that we have essentially found high rates of sliding everywhere we have looked on the ice sheet, even in the least-likely locations, like ours, we know that ice can be moved around very efficiently,” he said. “Thus, the rates of thickening and thinning are likely to occur more rapidly than previously thought.” That means the ice might change faster in a warming climate than currently thought, he said. In Photos: A Conveyor Belt for Arctic Sea Ice In Photos: The Vanishing Ice of Baffin Islandlast_img read more

This EagleNosed ShovelChinned Dinosaur May Be the Weirdest Thing You See Today

first_img Originally published on Live Science.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoBeach Raider24 Photos Of Shelter Dogs The Moment They Realize They’re Being AdoptedBeach RaiderUndoEditorChoice.comSee What The World’s Largest Dog Looks LikeEditorChoice.comUndoNucificTop Dr. Reveals The 1 Nutrient Your Gut Must HaveNucificUndoFinance101Oprah’s Mansion Costs $90 Million, And This Is What It Looks LikeFinance101Undo A newfound duck-billed dinosaur species that lived about 80 million years ago had a face so bizarre that scientists named the animal “eagle-nose shovel-chin.” Its jaws resembled a pair of gardening tools, with wavy ridges along the edges in a “W” shape. An arching crest in the middle of its face was curved like the majestic beak of an eagle, giving the dinosaur’s profile the appearance of a prominent, humped nose. Scientists found the unusual fossil skull and a partial skeleton of the animal in the 1980s in Big Bend National Park, a site in southwestern Texas, though the specimen was not analyzed in detail until recently. The duck-billed weirdo shared some features in common with other duck-billed and crested dinosaurs, the group Saurolophidae, but it was more primitive, offering intriguing new clues about how the group’s trademark crests evolved, scientists reported in a new study. [Image Gallery: 25 Amazing Ancient Beasts]Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65937-shovel-chinned-dinosaur.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35  Some dinosaurs’ scientific names invoke a sense of drama: Think of Tyrannosaurus rex (“tyrant lizard king”) or Velociraptor (“swift thief”). In this case, the researchers couldn’t resist calling out the dinosaur’s bizarre face. The genus name “Aquilarhinus” combines the Latin word “aquila,” for “eagle,” and the Greek word “rhinos,” which means “nose.” The species name “palimentus” comes from the Latin words for “shovel” and “chin,” according to the study. All known dinosaurs in this group (also called hadrosaurids) have beak-like jaws that expand at the end into a scoop shape, “hence the nickname ‘duck-billed’ dinosaurs,” said lead study author Albert Prieto-Márquez, a researcher with the Catalan Institute of Palaeontology Miquel Crusafont in Barcelona, Spain. “However, they differ from Aquilarhinus in that this ‘scoop’ is all concave. In contrast, in Aquilarhinus, there was a rise, a convex relief at the center of the ‘scoop,'” Prieto-Márquez told Live Science in an email. Photos: School-Bus-Size Dinosaur Discovered in Egypt The lower jaw and teeth of Aquilarhinus, showing the unusual upturned end of the mandible. Credit: Photo by Albert Prieto- Marquez; material housed at the Texas Vertebrate Paleontology Collections at The University of Texas at Austin. Like other hadrosaurs, or duck-billed dinosaurs, Aquilarhinus had a bony crest on its skull. However, this dino had unique, shovel-like jaws. Credit: ICRA Art Decades earlier, other scientists who examined the dinosaur’s skull thought that the nasal crest resembled that of another hadrosaurid, Gryposaurus. But despite the superficial similarities, Aquilarhinus proved to be a more primitive hadrosaurid than Gryposaurus, taking up a position at the very base of the group’s family tree. This hinted that the diverse shapes of hadrosaurid cranial crests all stemmed from a structure that began as a simple arched nose, Prieto-Márquez said. Aquilarhinus, aka eagle-nose shovel-chin, also provides a missing puzzle piece concerning where hadrosaurids may have originated. These dinosaurs were common across Europe, Asia, North and South America, and Antarctica during the latter part of the Cretaceous period (145.5 million to 65 million years ago), and the appearance of this primitive specimen supports an increasingly popular hypothesis that hadrosaurids first appeared in the southern part of North America, the study authors said. The findings were published online July 12 in the Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. Photos: Duck-Billed Dinosaurs Found in Alaska Photos: Spiky-Headed Dinosaur Found in Utah, But It Has Asian Roots That ridged, scooping chin likely came in handy millions of years ago; what is now a dry and rocky landscape in Texas was back then a coastal swamp or marsh. Aquilarhinus probably used its peculiar jaws to scoop vegetation from the bottom of a muddy creek bed, the researchers wrote. However, it’s less clear what the dinosaur’s prominent nasal crest was for, though it may have been used as a display to help the dinosaurs recognize members of their own kind and compete for mates, Prieto-Márquez said. “The crest of Aquilarhinus is simpler in structure than that of most other hadrosaurids, except members of kritosaurini (a subgroup of hadrosaurids),” he explained. “In both Aquilarhinus and kritosaurins for which the crest is known, this is just a fold of the nasal bone, giving them a Roman nose appearance.”last_img read more

Tiny Fighting Worms Make One of the Loudest Sounds in the Ocean

first_imgHeadbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Volume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Better Bug Sprays?01:33 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65945-tiny-worms-emit-loud-noise.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35Your Recommended Playlist01:33Better Bug Sprays?01:08Why Do French Fries Taste So Bad When They’re Cold?04:24Sperm Whale Befriends Underwater Robot00:29Robot Jumps Like a Grasshopper, Rolls Like a Ball00:29Video – Giggly Robot02:31Surgical Robotics关闭 Tiny, feisty worms that live off the coast of Japan fight by headbutting each other — and they aren’t quiet about it. During these feuds, the worms emit one of the loudest sounds in the ocean, according to a new study. The source of the underwater hullabaloo is a nearly transparent segmented worm called the Leocratides kimuraorum, which lives inside sponges 279 to 554 feet (85 to 169 meters) deep off the coast of Japan. [The 12 Weirdest Animal Discoveries]Advertisement These wigglies are just a tad more than an inch (29 millimeters) long and have lengthy tentacles and a big mouth (literally). These seemingly quiet creatures revealed their true nature under the spotlight in the lab. A group of researchers used an instrument called a hydrophone to record 15 pops that were emitted from three kimuraorums as they were fighting. In a marine feud researchers dub “mouth-fighting,” the worms approached each other headfirst with their mouths open. During such encounters, the worms’ pharynx muscles expand rapidly, creating a cavitation bubble that collapses and produces a loud “pop” while the worms launch into each other. The researchers found that these pops can reach 157 decibels in the water (which is a different measurement than decibels in the air). From right next to the water tank, the pops sounded like humans snapping their fingers, lead author Goto Ryutaro, an assitant professor at Kyoto University told Live Science. “Though they probably sound louder if you hear them in the water.” The worms are as loud as snapping shrimps, which are one of the biggest noisemakers in the ocean, the authors wrote. What’s more, they found that these worms did not make any noise when simply disturbed, they only did so when they were fighting. They “may use mouth-fighting to defend territory or living chambers from other worms,” the authors wrote July 8 in the journal Current Biology. “A loud pop may be a byproduct of the rapid mouth attack, but it may also aid intraspecific communication.” A loud noise could somehow determine the victor of the fight or even reveal the whereabouts of nearby worms, they wrote. Strange Love: 10 Animals with Truly Weird Courtship Rituals The 10 Strangest Animal Discoveries Originally published on Live Science.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoBeverly Hills MDHow To Fill In Wrinkles At HomeBeverly Hills MDUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoGundry MD Total Restore SupplementU.S. Cardiologist: It’s Like a Pressure Wash for Your InsidesGundry MD Total Restore SupplementUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoLivestlyThe List Of Dog Breeds To Avoid At All CostsLivestlyUndo 13 Extremely Weird Animal Feetlast_img read more